Do you know how to identify a food capable of transmitting botulism? Do you know the bacteria that is the cause of the disease? This microorganism can appear in any type of food, whether of animal or vegetable origin, but for its growth and proliferation it needs a lack of oxygen.
Symptoms such as double vision, nausea, vomiting or weakness accompanied by generalized paralysis, are indicative of an infection generated by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . Canned foods are responsible for almost all sprouts, and in this article we explain why.
About botulism bacteria: Clostridium botulinum
The Clostridium botulinum is a microorganism that is classified in the obligatory anaerobic bacteria, as well as not need oxygen to carry out their metabolic processes, the existence of the same kills. It means that they are forced to live with low concentrations of the gas.
Clostridium botulinum has a characteristic rod shape, and another feature that distinguishes it from many bacteria is its ability to generate spores. This form of subsistence allows it to remain in a dormant state for long periods, and to activate when the environment is suitable for its growth and proliferation.
The microorganism has a variable resistance to oxygen. However, various studies maintain and agree that it never grows in atmospheres containing more than 10% of the gas.
What makes it dangerous?
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by this microorganism, which acts on the myoneural layer of the human body. Thus, it prevents the correct path of the nerve impulse. Its mechanism of action can be collected in three different phases:
- The toxin hydrogen chain binds to receptors on the presynaptic membrane of the neuron. In other words, it concentrates its action on the human nervous system.
- The toxin enters the neuron by an active mechanism similar to endocytosis. The neuronal cell admits entry by absorbing the molecule.
- Inside the neuron, the toxin interferes with the release of acetylcholine. As there is not enough of it, the union between the nerve and the muscle does not fulfill the task of indicating the contraction of the fibers when it is necessary or when a command is sent from the brain.
In conclusion, botulinum toxin, by preventing the exit of acetylcholine from the neuron, makes it impossible to excite the muscles. The end result will be a lack of tonicity and contraction.